critical thinking: definition and foundation.

Foundation of Critical thinking:


Critical thinking is defined by The national Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, inĀ 1987.A statement by Michael Screven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987.


Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness.


  • evidence through reality.
  • Context skills to isolate the problem from context
  • Relevant criteria for making the judgment well
  • Applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment
  • Applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand
  • reconstruct one’s patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience
  • Render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.

someone with critical thinking skills can:

  • understand the link between ideas.
  • Recognise, build and appraise arguments.
  • Approach problems in a consistent and systematic way.

Try this simple example so you can start thinking critically:

thinking of something that someone has told you recently. Then ask yourself the following question:

who said it?

The Result..

A well cultivated critical thinker:

  • raises vital question and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely.
  • Gather relative information, using abstract ideas, testing them against relevant criteria and standards.
  • thinks openmindedly within alternative system of thoughts.
  • communicates affectively with others in figure out solutions into complex problem.
critical thinking is in short: self-directed, self-employed, self-monitored, self corrective thinking.





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